What makes this station different?

Figure The station in the field. The trees located about 100 m North of the tower were cut at the end of the Summer of 2020.

Data availability

Available on request from Pedro J. Aphalo. Online open access planned. Acknowledgment of source required, collaborations are also welcome.

Limitations of the data

Radiation data in winter months is very unreliable as the sensors lack a blower to keep the snow away. Some of the radiation sensors have heating but this does not help much with sticky snow. Precipitation as snow or sleet is not detected by the weather sensor, and also wind measurements can be potentially affected by snow and ice accumulation. Other variables can be trusted year-round. The intention of this staion is mainly to take readings during the growing season. The data in the files include winter values for all variables, including those which are expected not reliable on many days between mid November and late March, and a few days in April.

Variables acquired and logged

Here we list the variables that are stored in the logger’s memory at different time intervals, plus time and date-related variables that are computed and adjusted to UTC when the data are imported into R for archived.

Quantities logged once per minute

Table Data logged once per minute available before computation of derived quantities. In most cases with calibrations applied in the logger. Column ‘summary’ shows how the data are summarised by the datalogger before being stored.
Quantity Summary Units
“TIMESTAMP” sample
“PAR_Den_Avg” mean of 12 values µmol/s/m²
“PAR_BF_tot_Avg” mean of 12 values µmol/s/m²
“PAR_BF_diff_Avg” mean of 12 values µmol/s/m²
“Solar_irrad_Avg” mean of 12 values W/m²
“PTemp_C” mean of 12 values C
“WindSpd_S_WVT” sample m/s
“WindDir_D1_WVT” sample Deg
“WindDir_SD1_WVT” sample Deg
“AirTemp_Avg” sample C
“RelHumidity” sample %
“AirDewPoint” sample C
“AirPressure” sample hPa
“Ramount_Tot” sample mm
“Hamount_Tot” sample hits/cm2
“Red_Den_cal_Avg” mean of 12 values µmol/s/m²
“Far_red_Den_cal_Avg” mean of 12 values µmol/s/m²
“RFR_rat_Avg” mean of 12 values mol / mol
“Blue_Den_Avg” mean of 12 values mV
“UVA_Den_Avg” mean of 12 values mV
“UVB_Den_Avg” mean of 12 values mV
“SurfTemp_grnd_Avg” mean of 12 values C
“SurfTemp_veg_Avg” mean of 12 values C
“T107_C_Avg(1-4)” mean of 12 values C
On import to R some quantities are computed and added to the data set. Based on the “TIMESTAMP” stored by the datalogger (and its difference from UTC time) and the geographic coordinates of the station, the sun position and solar time are computed and added to the data. “TIMESTAMP” is deleted and replaced by the quantities in this table. Depending on the date of data acquisition, some calibrations are applied at this stage.
Quantity Summary Units
“time” sample yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss UTC
“day_of_year” sample numeric
“month_of_year” sample 1..12
“month_name” sample character
“calendar_year” sample numeric
“time_of_day” sample numeric
“solar_time” sample numeric
“sun_elevation” sample degrees
“sun_azimuth” sample degrees

Quantities logged once per hour

Table Data logged once per hour available before computation of derived quantities. In most cases with calibrations applied in the logger. Column ‘summary’ shows how the data are summarised by the datalogger before being stored. As for data logged at 1 min intervals, the TIMESTAMP is converted to UTC time. Sun angles are not computed.
Quantity Summary Units
“TIMESTAMP” sample
“PAR_Den_Avg” mean of 720 values µmol/s/m²
“PAR_Den_Std” standard deviation of 720 values µmol/s/m²
“PAR_BF_tot_Avg” mean of 720 values µmol/s/m²
“PAR_BF_tot_Std” standard deviation of 720 values µmol/s/m²
“PAR_BF_diff_Avg” mean of 720 values µmol/s/m²
“PAR_BF_diff_Std” standard deviation of 720 values µmol/s/m²
“Solar_irrad_Avg” mean of 720 values W/m²
“Solar_irrad_Std” standard deviation of 720 values W/m²
“Red_Den_cal_Avg” mean of 720 values µmol/s/m²
“Far_red_Den_cal_Avg” mean of 720 values µmol/s/m²
“RFR_rat_Avg” mean of 720 values mol/mol
“RFR_rat_Min” minimum of 720 values mol/mol
“RFR_rat_TMn” time at minimum of 720 values yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss
“RFR_rat_Max” maximum of 720 values mol/mol
“RFR_rat_TMx” time maximum of 720 values yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss
“Blue_Den_Avg” mean of 720 values mV
“UVA_Den_Avg” mean of 720 values mV
“UVB_Den_Avg” mean of 720 values mV
“WindSpd_S_WVT”
“WindDir_D1_WVT”
“WindDir_SD1_WVT”
“AirTemp_Avg”
“RelHumidity_Avg”
“AirDewPoint_Avg”
“AirPressure”
“Ramount”
“Hamount”
“SurfTemp_grnd_Avg” mean of 720 values C
“SurfTemp_veg_Avg” mean of 720 values C
“VWC_[2-8]_Avg”
“EC_[2-8]_Avg”
“T_[2-8]_Avg” C
“VWC_5cm_[1-3]”
“Ka_5cm_[1-3]”
“T_5cm_[1-3]” C
“BulkEC_5cm_[1-3]”
“VWC_10cm_[1-3]”
“Ka_10cm_[1-3]”
“T_10cm_[1-3]”
“BulkEC_10cm_[1-3]”
“VWC_20cm_[1-3]”
“Ka_20cm_[1-3]”
“T_20cm_[1-3]”
“BulkEC_20cm_[1-3]”
“VWC_30cm_[1-3]”
“Ka_30cm_[1-3]”
“T_30cm_[1-3]”
“BulkEC_30cm_[1-3]”
“VWC_40cm_[1-3]”
“Ka_40cm_[1-3]”
“T_40cm_[1-3]”
“BulkEC_40cm_[1-3]”
“VWC_50cm_[1-3]”
“Ka_50cm_[1-3]”
“T_50cm_[1-3]”
“BulkEC_50cm_[1-3]”

Quantities logged once per day

Table Data logged once per day available before computation of derived quantities. In most cases with calibrations applied in the logger. Column ‘summary’ shows how the data are summarized by the datalogger before being stored. As for data logged at 1 h intervals, the TIMESTAMP is converted to UTC time. Sun angles are not computed.
Quantity Summary Units
“TIMESTAMP” sample yyyy-mm-dd
“PAR_Den_Hst(1-25)” histogram with 25 bins µmol/s/m²
“Solar_irrad_Hst(1-25)” histogram with 25 bins µmol/s/m²
“PAR_DenLog_Hst(1-12)” histogram with 12 bins log(µmol/s/m²)
“Solar_irradLog_Hst(1-10)” histogram with 10 bins log(µmol/s/m²)
“PAR_Den_Min” minimum of 172680 values µmol/s/m²
“PAR_Den_TMn” time at minimum of 172680 values yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss
“PAR_Den_Max” maximum of 172680 values µmol/s/m²
“PAR_Den_TMx” time at maximum of 172680 values yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss
“PAR_BF_tot_Min” minimum of 172680 values µmol/s/m²
“PAR_BF_tot_TMn” time at minimum of 172680 values yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss
“PAR_BF_tot_Max” maximum of 172680 values µmol/s/m²
“PAR_BF_tot_TMx” time at maximum of 172680 values yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss
“PAR_BF_diff_Min” minimum of 172680 values µmol/s/m²
“PAR_BF_diff_TMn” time at minimum of 172680 values yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss
“PAR_BF_diff_Max” maximum of 172680 values µmol/s/m²
“PAR_BF_diff_TMx” time at maximum of 172680 values yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss
“AirTemp_Avg” mean of values C
“AirDewPoint_Avg” mean of values C
“AirPressure_Avg” mean of values hPa
“AirTemp_Min” minimum of values C
“AirTemp_TMn” time at minimum of values yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss
“AirTemp_Max” maximum of 172680 values C
“AirTemp_TMx” time at maximum of values yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss
“AirDewPoint_Min” minimum of values C
“AirDewPoint_TMn” time at minimum of values yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss
“AirDewPoint_Max” maximum of values C
“AirDewPoint_TMx” time at maximum of values yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss
“AirPressure_Min” minimum of values C
“AirPressure_TMn” time at minimum of values yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss
“AirPressure_Max” maximum of values C
“AirPressure_TMx” time at maximum of values yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss
“T107_C_Min(1-4)” minimum of 172680 values C
“T107_C_TMn(1-4)” time at minimum of 172680 values yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss
“T107_C_Max(1-4)” maximum of 172680 values C
“T107_C_TMx(1-4)” time at maximum of 172680 values yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss
“SurfTemp_grnd_Min” minimum of 172680 values C
“SurfTemp_grnd_TMn” time at minimum of 172680 values yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss
“SurfTemp_grnd_Max” maximum of 172680 values C
“SurfTemp_grnd_TMx” time at maximum of 172680 values yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss
“SurfTemp_veg_Min” minimum of 172680 values C
“SurfTemp_veg_TMn” time at minimum of 172680 values yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss
“SurfTemp_veg_Max” maximum of 172680 values C
“SurfTemp_veg_TMx” time at maximum of 172680 values yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss
“BattV_Min” minimum of 172680 values V
“PTemp_C_Min” minimum of 172680 values C
“PTemp_C_Max” maximum of 172680 values C

Data including some derived variables

As the data have been logged for different lengths of time for the different variables, when merging the data into a single set, some variables are filled-in with a marker of “not available” (NA). Based on the logged data some additional derived quantities are computed. We use R but the data can be easily exported to text files as comma separated values (CSV).

The data set at 1 min interval has 2040217 rows and 34 variables. The variables are series_start, time, PAR_umol, PAR_umol_BF, PAR_diff_fr, global_watt, wind_speed, wind_direction, air_temp_C, air_vp, air_RH, air_DP, air_pressure, day_of_year, month_of_year, month_name, calendar_year, time_of_day, solar_time, sun_elevation, sun_azimuth, was_sunny, red_umol, far_red_umol, red_far_red, blue_umol, blue_sellaro_umol, blue_red, UVA_umol, UVA_PAR, UVB_umol, UVB_PAR, PAR_umol_CS, ET_ref.

The data set at 1 h interval has 34491 rows and 16 variables. The variables are time, PAR_umol, global_watt, day_of_year, month_of_year, month_name, calendar_year, solar_time, wind_speed, wind_direction, air_temp_C, air_RH, air_DP, air_pressure, rain, hail.

The soil data set at 1 h interval has 12602 rows and 88 variables. The variables are time, PAR_umol, global_watt, wind_speed, wind_direction, air_temp_C, air_RH, air_DP, air_pressure, rain, hail, day_of_year, month_of_year, month_name, calendar_year, solar_time, VWC_5cm_1, Ka_5cm_1, T_5cm_1, BulkEC_5cm_1, VWC_5cm_2, Ka_5cm_2, T_5cm_2, BulkEC_5cm_2, VWC_5cm_3, Ka_5cm_3, T_5cm_3, BulkEC_5cm_3, VWC_10cm_1, Ka_10cm_1, T_10cm_1, BulkEC_10cm_1, VWC_20cm_1, Ka_20cm_1, T_20cm_1, BulkEC_20cm_1, VWC_30cm_1, Ka_30cm_1, T_30cm_1, BulkEC_30cm_1, VWC_40cm_1, Ka_40cm_1, T_40cm_1, BulkEC_40cm_1, VWC_50cm_1, Ka_50cm_1, T_50cm_1, BulkEC_50cm_1, VWC_10cm_2, Ka_10cm_2, T_10cm_2, BulkEC_10cm_2, VWC_20cm_2, Ka_20cm_2, T_20cm_2, BulkEC_20cm_2, VWC_30cm_2, Ka_30cm_2, T_30cm_2, BulkEC_30cm_2, VWC_40cm_2, Ka_40cm_2, T_40cm_2, BulkEC_40cm_2, VWC_50cm_2, Ka_50cm_2, T_50cm_2, BulkEC_50cm_2, VWC_10cm_3, Ka_10cm_3, T_10cm_3, BulkEC_10cm_3, VWC_20cm_3, Ka_20cm_3, T_20cm_3, BulkEC_20cm_3, VWC_30cm_3, Ka_30cm_3, T_30cm_3, BulkEC_30cm_3, VWC_40cm_3, Ka_40cm_3, T_40cm_3, BulkEC_40cm_3, VWC_50cm_3, Ka_50cm_3, T_50cm_3, BulkEC_50cm_3.

The data set at 1 d interval has 1200 rows and 132 variables. The variables are TIMESTAMP, RECORD, PAR_Den_Avg, PAR_BF_tot_Avg, PAR_BF_diff_Avg, PAR_Den_Min, PAR_Den_TMn, PAR_Den_Max, PAR_Den_TMx, PAR_BF_tot_Min, PAR_BF_tot_TMn, PAR_BF_tot_Max, PAR_BF_tot_TMx, PAR_BF_diff_Min, PAR_BF_diff_TMn, PAR_BF_diff_Max, PAR_BF_diff_TMx, BattV_Min, AirTemp_Avg, AirDewPoint_Avg, AirPressure_Avg, AirTemp_Min, AirTemp_TMn, AirTemp_Max, AirTemp_TMx, AirDewPoint_Min, AirDewPoint_TMn, AirDewPoint_Max, AirDewPoint_TMx, AirPressure_Min, AirPressure_TMn, AirPressure_Max, AirPressure_TMx, PAR_Den_Hst(1), PAR_Den_Hst(2), PAR_Den_Hst(3), PAR_Den_Hst(4), PAR_Den_Hst(5), PAR_Den_Hst(6), PAR_Den_Hst(7), PAR_Den_Hst(8), PAR_Den_Hst(9), PAR_Den_Hst(10), PAR_Den_Hst(11), PAR_Den_Hst(12), PAR_Den_Hst(13), PAR_Den_Hst(14), PAR_Den_Hst(15), PAR_Den_Hst(16), PAR_Den_Hst(17), PAR_Den_Hst(18), PAR_Den_Hst(19), PAR_Den_Hst(20), PAR_Den_Hst(21), PAR_Den_Hst(22), PAR_Den_Hst(23), PAR_Den_Hst(24), PAR_Den_Hst(25), Solar_irrad_Hst(1), Solar_irrad_Hst(2), Solar_irrad_Hst(3), Solar_irrad_Hst(4), Solar_irrad_Hst(5), Solar_irrad_Hst(6), Solar_irrad_Hst(7), Solar_irrad_Hst(8), Solar_irrad_Hst(9), Solar_irrad_Hst(10), Solar_irrad_Hst(11), Solar_irrad_Hst(12), Solar_irrad_Hst(13), Solar_irrad_Hst(14), Solar_irrad_Hst(15), Solar_irrad_Hst(16), Solar_irrad_Hst(17), Solar_irrad_Hst(18), Solar_irrad_Hst(19), Solar_irrad_Hst(20), Solar_irrad_Hst(21), Solar_irrad_Hst(22), Solar_irrad_Hst(23), Solar_irrad_Hst(24), Solar_irrad_Hst(25), PAR_DenLog_Hst(1), PAR_DenLog_Hst(2), PAR_DenLog_Hst(3), PAR_DenLog_Hst(4), PAR_DenLog_Hst(5), PAR_DenLog_Hst(6), PAR_DenLog_Hst(7), PAR_DenLog_Hst(8), PAR_DenLog_Hst(9), PAR_DenLog_Hst(10), PAR_DenLog_Hst(11), PAR_DenLog_Hst(12), Solar_irradLog_Hst(1), Solar_irradLog_Hst(2), Solar_irradLog_Hst(3), Solar_irradLog_Hst(4), Solar_irradLog_Hst(5), Solar_irradLog_Hst(6), Solar_irradLog_Hst(7), Solar_irradLog_Hst(8), Solar_irradLog_Hst(9), Solar_irradLog_Hst(10), T107_C_Min(1), T107_C_Min(2), T107_C_Min(3), T107_C_Min(4), T107_C_TMn(1), T107_C_TMn(2), T107_C_TMn(3), T107_C_TMn(4), T107_C_Max(1), T107_C_Max(2), T107_C_Max(3), T107_C_Max(4), T107_C_TMx(1), T107_C_TMx(2), T107_C_TMx(3), T107_C_TMx(4), SurfTemp_grnd_Min, SurfTemp_grnd_TMn, SurfTemp_grnd_Max, SurfTemp_grnd_TMx, SurfTemp_veg_Min, SurfTemp_veg_TMn, SurfTemp_veg_Max, SurfTemp_veg_TMx, PTemp_C_Min, PTemp_C_Max, PAR_Day_Tot.

Example plots

Using data saved at 1 min interval we can compute empirical desity distributions, showing how frequently different values have been observed.

PAR photon irradiance

One minute averages for sun above the horizon of measurements with LI-190 quantum sensor every 5 seconds. During winter-time some snow could have accumulated on the sensor.

## Picking joint bandwidth of 0.0516

Soil temperature profile

Here we fit a quantile regression for soil temperature on soil depth for the 5%, 50% and 95% percentiles. This highlights the range of variation at different depths on different months of the year. The data values, not plotted, are medians from three sensors.

Here we show hourly temperatures at different depths over a few days, showing the daily warming and cooling of the mostly bare soil. The data values shown are medians from three sensors.